accents in Spanish words:
The use of the accent (´) over vowels in Spanish words follows set rules based on pronunciation. Although these accents are often omitted in English-language publications, omitting them may be considered incorrect spelling. Many people of Hispanic origin use accents in spelling their names (although many do not). Commonly accented names include “José,” “María,” “García,” “Gómez,” “Martínez,” and “González.” The accent is used by “San José State University” and the “city of San José.” However, it is not used by the San Jose Mercury News. NOTE: To create the accent, hold the “option” key and press “e.” Release both keys, then press the letter to be accented.
acronyms and abbreviations:
Follow AP style. Periods are not used in most abbreviations: EOP, UN, NATO, CIA, URL, CD, DVD. Here are some exceptions:
- Degrees: B.A., Ph.D., M.D.
- Certain place names: U.S., D.C.
- Other exceptions: Mr., Mrs., Ms., Dr., etc., St., Co., pp., B.C., A.D., B.C.E., C.E.
Do not abbreviate the name of a program unless you have already given it in full: Education Abroad Program (EAP).
Format mailing addresses as follows. Abbreviate terms such as “St.” and “Ave.”
University of California, Santa Cruz
(Department or Office Name)
1156 High St.
Santa Cruz CA 95064
“Admissions” (plural) is often used to describe the overall admission process. At UC Santa Cruz, for example, the Office of Admissions oversees this process. Usage varies, but use “admission” in sentences similar to the following: “They reviewed the systemwide admission requirements.”
AP’s preference is adviser, based on advise (v.). AP stories allow the use of the “advisor” spelling for a formal title or certification. UC Santa Cruz style allows the “-or” spelling if it’s in a formal title or a recognized certification, or is simply an industry standard or departmental preference. Both spellings are listed in the dictionary as correct.
The term for the people and culture of Afghanistan. Afghani is the Afghan unit of currency.
African American, Black:
Use these terms interchangeably for Americans of African descent (except for UC application or admission reports). No hyphen in the noun or adjective form. Do not use “African American” for people of African descent living in other countries (Canada, Caribbean nations, etc.).
Capitalizing Black is a change made in June 2020, following AP’s decision to capitalize it when used in a racial, ethnic, or cultural sense, conveying an essential and shared sense of history, identity, and community among people who identify as Black, including those in the African diaspora and within Africa. The lowercase black is a color, not a person.
- alumnus (one male)
- alumna (one female)
- alumni (two or more males or mixed genders)
- alumnae (two or more females)
alumni class and year:
- class of ’78
- Crown ’97
- Porter ’02
- Oakes ’18
- Graduate Studies ’06
To include name and degree earned, use the following form:
- María González (Cowell ’92, literature)
For multiple degrees use:
- John Jones (M.A. economics ’90; Ph.D. ’95)
- Janet Jackson (Rachel Carson ’15, applied mathematics; Ph.D. ’19)
Preferred and mandatory for UC application or admission reports. “Native American” is acceptable in other contexts. No hyphen in noun or adjective form.
The College Board has trademarked “AP” and capitalizes “Exam,” but for clarity, we can refer to them on first mention as “Advanced Placement examinations.” Also: “AP courses.”
apostrophe use (possessive):
To show possession, add “apostrophe s” to singular words, even if they end in s or z:
- Santa Cruz’s
To plurals ending in s, add an apostrophe only:
- nine dogs’ tails
Be careful not to confuse possessive adjectives, which do not take apostrophes, with contractions, which do:
- The tree lost its leaves.
- It’s time to go.
Do not use the apostrophe in plurals such as the following:
- M.A.s and Ph.D.s
No hyphen in noun or adjective form.